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魔术表演隐藏科学玄机

发布日期:2010-05-15

        随着台湾帅哥魔术师刘谦在连续2届春节联欢晚会上的露面,魔术热升温,许多人在魔术热中开始了自己的魔术学习。魔术揭秘也多了起来。对此,魔术师回答说,他们会抵制这种行为,但也相信,这些“揭秘”不至于让自己没有魔术可供表演,稍微改变一下,观众又意识不到了。“魔术其实就是那个秘密,但是那个秘密是最不值钱的”魔术师回答说。那值钱的是什么呢?“魔术更多是看表演。换种表演方式,就是自己的魔术。”我们现在知道,这种表演中,隐藏着认知科学的玄机。

        魔术师的学习分为两部分:硬功夫即魔术手法的练习和表演技巧。后者在很多时候显得尤为重要,因为正是巧妙的表演技巧让魔术手法发挥出最大的效力。用魔术师们的行话形容就是”三分魔术,七分表演。”

        如你所见,进来,心理学家认知神经科学家对魔术产生了浓厚的兴趣,去年11月的《自然》杂志神经科学评论上,就刊登了一篇《舞台魔术中的注意与觉察》,今年三月出版的这一期又有两篇关于魔术与认知神经研究的文章发表。科学家相信,对于魔术的研究有助于我们发现人类信息加工的深层机制,甚至能够帮助改善那些认知障碍患者的生活。翻飞的扑克牌中,兴许隐藏着治疗阿兹海默氏症的秘密,科学家的工作,大概会让魔术师也吃惊吧。

未注意目盲

        魔术师会站在观众的角度设计表演细节。比如,看表演的观众心里会暗自想:”他(魔术师)一定在做手脚”。”手脚”就是迅速而准确的动作。如果魔术师想要这些动作在众目睽睽下而丝毫不被发现,仅靠一个”快”字是远远不够的。这就需要用表演配合,表演将观众的注意力吸引到别处。

        美国伊力诺依大学香槟分校心理学家Daniel Simons和 Christopher Chabris在1999年进行了一个著名的实验,这个实验对于我们理解魔术大有帮助。两位心理学家制作了一个拍摄六个人打篮球的视频,然后邀请一些人来观看视频。参加实验的人被要求完成这样一个任务–给视频中的其中三人计算传球数,而忽略其他人的运动。在视频中段,一个打扮成大猩猩的演员出现在篮球场正中央,他停留片刻并做出经典的大猩猩动作–擂胸脯,之后离开。观看视频结束后,有半数参与者居然都没有发现有大猩猩演员在视频中出现过。

        这一现象在心理学中被称作“未注意目盲(unattentional blindness)”。其实,早先对于注意机制的心理学研究就涉及了这一问题。心理学家发现,人类会本能地注意到新异刺激,但注意的能力或资源是有限的,当这一资源耗尽时,新的刺激就不能被注意了。上述实验中,由于参与者全神贯注地注意那些运动员,竟然忽视了如此怪异的大猩猩演员。魔术师显然非常懂得利用观众的“未注意目盲”。一方面,他不断地为观众制造出强烈的知觉刺激,吸引观众的注意力,同时,他又将不希望观众注意到的动作悄无声息地迅速完成。

变化目盲

        变化目盲(change blindness)可以看做扰乱观众观察的障眼法,是另一种常见的魔术方法,它涉及更为复杂的心理机制。在许多魔术表演中,观众被魔术师精彩的表演吸引着不断变化着自己的注视点,扫视、以及长期注视一点时的自主眼动,是魔术障眼法要利用的知觉弱点。魔术师通过动作和现场声光配合,将需要遮盖的戏法放在观众知觉能力降低的时段来进行。

社会认知导致的注意是魔术师的好“助手”

         一个魔术师面带神秘的微笑,全神贯注地注视着自己右手中的丝带,一旁,他漂亮的女伴也让你眼前一亮。要的就是这个效果!表演还没开始,你已经进入了魔术师设定好的”圈套”。

        人类对于面孔有着特别的注意能力,可以本能地觉察其他人的表情。你只要稍加注意就会发现魔术师上场时要么潇洒地微笑,要么故作神秘的皱眉……总之,他永远不会面无表情地上场。他的表情是他完成动作的有力掩护。英国杜伦大学的心理学家Gustav Kuhn通过研究观众的注视发现:在观看一段魔术视频时,观众的注视点主要落在魔术师的脸部和他自己所注视的一只手,而忽略了魔术师正在变换的另一只手。

错觉是魔术师的另一位“助手”

        你一定记得”两小儿辩日”这个著名的错觉故事(孔子遇到两个小孩争论太阳是早晨大还是午间大,这涉及太阳与参照物的比较)。一些知觉定势在平时有利于我们观察世界,但到了魔术的舞台上,却成了魔术师设计障眼法的关键。一个魔术师不断向空中抛出小球,在其中的一次,他将球丢下,但他仍作出抛球的动作,并且眼睛看着不存在的球,而观众也随着他的动作和眼神追逐着小球,根本意识不到小球早已经消失。大脑为了处理视觉信息,凭空造出了这枚小球。

        我们都能通过近大远小这一知觉线索判断事物的距离,魔术师就制作了一个大一点的远景使我们以为它非常接近。当高速旋转的电锯切向美女时,观众不禁捏了一把汗,接下来,电锯毫不留情地从美女身体上切了下去,观众发出阵阵惊呼。的的确确确有一把锋利无比的电锯,只不过它孤独地旋转在舞台后面,魔术师利用错觉使我们觉得是它将美女拦腰截断了。

        暗示是魔术师和心理学家都很关注的一个问题。关于暗示的某些方面,魔术师似乎还更胜一筹。魔术师对观众席高呼:谁愿意上台来!应者云集。随后,魔术师对被邀请上台的观众迅速展示一套牌,之后魔术师对他说:”任选一张牌,看完不要告诉我”,这位观众的自由意志似乎暂时放假了。70%-80%的参与者会选择魔术师意料之中的那张牌,因为这张牌在刚才的”迅速展示”中已经重复出现过十次,但参与者可是丝毫没有意识到这一点。这种不能进入意识的刺激在心理学中被称为阈下刺激(心理学将刺激能被感受到的最低限度称为阈限,而称那些不能感受到的刺激称为阈下刺激。例如我们听不到的超声波或次声波。)。显然,尽管我们没有意识到,它还是产生了影响。

        With the magic thermal heating, but also a greater magic Jiemi up. In response, the young magician said that they would resist such acts, but also believe that these "Reveal" alienating their magic for performance and not a little to change the look, the audience are not aware of. "Magic is actually the secret, but the secret is worthless," Cabbage said. It is worth what? "Magic is more performances. For species of the performers is their magic." We now know that this show, the hidden mystery of cognitive science.

        You may share in this national enthusiasm for the magic began to learn his magic. Magician's study is divided into two parts: the hard martial arts practice that magic tricks and performing skills. The latter is particularly important in many cases, because it is the ingenious techniques for performing magic tricks to play the greatest effect. The jargon used to describe a magician who is the "third magic, seven performances."

        As you can see, come in, cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists on the Magic had a keen interest in last November's "Nature" magazine commented on Neuroscience, published an article on "stage magic in the attention and awareness," published in March this year, there are two of cognitive neuroscience research on magic and the article was published. Scientists believe that the magic of the study will help us discover the underlying mechanisms of human information processing, and even help improve the lives of those patients with cognitive impairment. Rippling in the cards, perhaps fall into hidden secrets of the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, scientists work, it probably makes a magician surprise.

        Magician will perform standing audience's point of design details. For example, performances of the audience would feel secretly thinking: "He (magician) must be in tricks." "Something" is the rapid and accurate movement. If the Magic want these movements under the watchful eyes and in no way was found, only by a "fast" character is not enough. This need to show with performances to the audience's attention elsewhere.

        U.S. Iran University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign psychologist Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris in 1999 a famous experiment, this experiment go a long way for us to understand the magic. The two psychologists produced a six basketball shooting video, and then invite people to watch the video. Participated in the experiment were asked to complete a task - to calculate the video in three of them pass a few to the neglect of other people's movement. In the middle of the video, a performer dressed as gorillas in the middle of the basketball court, he remained a moment and make the classic gorilla action - Challenge chest, then leave. After watching the video, half of the participants were all found no gorillas actor appeared in the video.

        This phenomenon is called in psychology "not pay attention to blindness (unattentional blindness)". In fact, previous psychological research for the attention mechanism involving this issue. Psychologists have found that humans instinctively to note the novelty, but pay attention to the capacity or resources are limited, and when this resource is exhausted, new stimulus can not be noticed. In these experiments, because participants pay attention to those athletes with rapt attention, even ignore such a weird gorilla actor. Magic obviously very know how to use the audience "not pay attention to blindness." On the one hand, he kept the audience create a strong perception of stimulus to attract the audience's attention, while he in turn did not want the audience noted that the action quietly completed quickly.

        Change blindness (change blindness) can be seen as disturbing the audience observe the cover-up, magic is another common method, which involves a more complex psychological mechanisms. In many magic performances, the audience is a spectacular magician attracts the attention of their ever-changing point, glance, and long-term monitoring point, the autonomy of eye movement, is the magic to take advantage of the perceived weaknesses of a cover. Magic through the action and live sound and light tie, will need to cover the tricks on the audience perception of ability to reduce the time to carry out.

        Due attention to social cognition is a good magician, "assistant." A magician with a mysterious smile face, intently watching his right hand in the ribbon, one side, his beautiful companion let you all themselves. Want is this effect! Performance not yet begun, you have entered a Magic set a good "trap."

        Human face with special attention for the ability to be instinctively aware of other people's expressions. You just pay attention will find that when playing a magician or casual smile, frown or pretending to be mysterious ... ... In short, he never played deadpan. He completed his expression is a powerful screen action. Durham University psychologist Gustav Kuhn attention of the audience found through research: a magic in watching the video, the viewer's gaze has fallen mainly on the face and the magician caught the attention of his own hand, while ignoring the magic division is transform the other hand.

        Another illusion is the magician, "assistant." You must remember that "debate on the two children," the story of this famous illusion (Confucius, two children experienced major or controversial midday sun in the morning, such a comparison involving the Sun and the reference). Set number of perceived potential benefit we observed in the normal world, but to the magic of the stage, has become the key to Magic design a cover. A magician throws the ball into the air continuously, in which time, he dropped the ball, but he still moves to drop and eyes on the ball does not exist, the audience with his movements and eye chasing the ball, do not realize that the ball has long gone. The brain to process visual information, and fashioned out of thin air While this small ball.

        We can be much smaller in recent big clue to judge the perceived distance of things, a magician on the production of a larger vision that we thought it was very close. When the high-speed rotating saw cut to beauty, the audience can not help but pinched the Khan, then, saw mercilessly cut from the beautiful body down, the audience again and exclaimed issue. That truly does have a sharp saw unparalleled, but it alone on the stage behind the spin, magicians use illusion to make us feel that it will cut off the beauty down the middle.

        Magicians and psychologists are suggesting is a concern. About suggest some aspects of the magician seems superior. Magic of the audience shouted: Who wants to come to power! Should those gathered. Subsequently, the magician on stage the audience was invited to the rapid display of a license, after the magician said to him: "Choose a card, read Do not tell me", the audience seems to temporarily leave the free will. 70% -80% of the participants would choose to be expected magician card goes on, because this card in just a "quick show" has been repeated a dozen times, but the participants but did not realize this. This can not enter the consciousness of the stimulus in psychology known as the subthreshold stimulus (psychology will stimulate at least be perceived as a threshold, and that those who can not feel the stimulation as subliminal stimuli. For example, we can not hear ultrasonic or infrasonic waves.). Clearly, although we did not realize it was an impact.