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魔术应该如何寻求法律保护?

发布日期:2010-03-19

        魔术表演的法律保障是个较为复杂的问题。传统方法主要是魔术师行业自律及作为商业秘密保护,现代版权法诞生为魔术保护提供了新的途径。因为魔术是一种制造假象引起观众错觉的神奇视觉艺术。随着魔术艺术在国内演出市场的火热,其引起的各种权益纠纷也越来越多。那么魔术在法律上到底是用何种手段来保护呢?由于魔术本身具有不可公开的秘密性特质,导致法律上存在诸多尚未解决的难题。目前,关于如何保护魔术作品的有下列主要观点:

        有观点认为,魔术应受《反不正当竞争法》保护。该观点认为魔术作品构成商业秘密,魔术师的创作表演符合商业秘密的特征。首先,魔术师都会采取足够的措施来保守自己的秘密,对外界始终守口如瓶。其次,魔术师能够通过反复演出获得源源不断的经济利益,实现可观的收入预期。再次,独特性也称新颖性,指优秀的魔术作品往往为魔术师自己独创的成果。如大卫·科波菲尔的穿越长城、自由女神像消失,刘谦春晚上的硬币进杯等等。这也印证魔术作品只有具备了极强的新颖独特性才会使观众好奇心得到满足,并且使魔术师在同行内保持竞争力。

        也有人认为魔术受《著作权法》保护。《著作权法实施条例》规定:杂技艺术作品是指杂技、魔术、马戏等通过形体动作和技巧表现的作品。我国是将魔术纳入到杂技作品的范畴予以保护,但杂技本身是没有秘密可言,相反还鼓励其他同行对其中的高难技巧动作进行模仿,但体现魔术作品生命力特征——神秘性就使得其与一般杂技作品严格区分开。遗憾的是,此观点仅仅强调要加大对魔术进行知识产权上的法律保护,而并未明确保护的具体方式。

        实际上,上述观点都有一定合理性,但保护的方法和力度存在问题,不能进行全面、有效保护。其中,前一种观点纯粹从商业秘密角度保护缺乏全面性,同时力度也没有《著作权法》保护强;后一种观点是《著作权法》修订时新增内容,当时有些全国人大代表强烈要求写上杂技,说杂技是我国传统艺术,在国际上多次获奖,表演中糅入很强的艺术元素,应当受《著作权法》保护。这样,魔术就作为杂技的二级分支写入《著作权法》。但人大代表们或许并没有真正理解用《著作权法》到底去保护魔术的什么权利,导致《著作权法》尚处于提及并未落实到具体操作层面。

        从魔术专业本身的角度看,其实“魔术”是个上位概念,我们分析实践中出现的各类侵权行为实际是对魔术组成部分的侵犯。首先,魔术作品的表演适用《著作权法》保护。魔术师的表演是通过一系列合乎逻辑的流程动作最后产生一个反逻辑的结果。这其中魔术师表演所采用的操作步骤、流程环节就是《著作权法》要保护的客体。换言之,可以把魔术师的表演流程具体化为几个核心关键动作,这是受保护的,其他魔术师不得照搬。但这并不意味着其他魔术师就不能再表演相同魔术了。大卫可以表演空中飞翔,其他人同样可表演这个魔术,但不能采用与大卫一样的动作和流程。需要指出的是表演中不可避免地会用到一定数量的相同动作,至于多大程度相同是照搬的侵权行为,尺度把握应由法官来具体裁量。

        其次,魔术道具适用商业秘密保护。这可分两方面来阐述。一方面,如果魔术师发明了一项新的道具,并且可能会产生较大影响,通常魔术师都会采取极为严格的保密措施。除了自己表演外,绝不会对外界及同行泄密,直到其认为这项新魔术的表演黄金期过了,才会将道具对外销售。另一方面,当魔术师许可生产厂家制造并销售自己的道具时,可视为魔术师将秘密许可给厂家使用,而厂家卖给顾客时,又可视为再一次许可使用商业秘密。因此,与魔术师合作的道具厂商在向顾客销售时可以与顾客约定适用《合同法》第348条有关技术秘密转让受让人应当承担保密的义务,这样顾客就无法向他人泄密或自行仿制了。厂家出售时可以在发票上注明,或在销售合同中写明,还可以在道具说明书中表明禁止泄密和仿制的规定。

        再次,魔术师的表演权适用邻接权保护。从我国《著作权法》规定来看,表演者是演员或者其他表演文学、艺术作品的人。《世界知识产权组织表演和录音制品条约》规定:表演者指演员、歌唱家、音乐家、舞蹈家以及表演、歌唱、演说、朗诵、演奏、表现或其他方式表演文学或艺术作品或民间艺术作品的其他人员。因此,魔术师当然属于表演者范畴,也就受到邻接权保护。但有观点认为,未经魔术师许可现场直播或者进行录音录像的行为侵犯的不是魔术师作为“表演者”的权利,而是其肖像权或者隐私权,魔术师可借助民法通则的有关规定来保护。笔者不赞同此观点,邻接权是指作品传播者对其传播作品过程中所做出的创造性劳动成果所享有的权利。表演者对自己的表演除了拥有财产权外,还有权保护自己人格利益不受损害。该观点实际上是把邻接权保护降格为民法通则保护,缩小了权利保护范围。所以魔术师的表演利益应用邻接权予以保护。

        总之,魔术表演的法律保障是个较为复杂的问题。传统方法主要是魔术师行业自律及作为商业秘密保护,现代版权法诞生为魔术保护提供了新的途径。但在具体保护方法出台前,我们可以采用上述区分不同部分予以分别保护的法律途径。

 

         Magic show legal protection is the more complex issue. Traditional method of industry self-regulation is mainly a magician and as a trade secret protection, the birth of modern copyright law provides protection for the Magic a new way. Because the magic is an illusion caused by the audience create the illusion of magic visual arts. With the magic arts performances in the domestic market, hot, their interests in disputes arising from more and more. Magic in the end if the law is the means to protect it? As the magic itself is not an open secret of sexual characteristics, leading to the law, there are many unresolved problems. At present, about how to protect magic works have the following main points:

        The view was expressed that the Magic should be subject to "anti-unfair competition law" protections. The view is that magic works constitute a commercial secret, the creation of a magician performing in line with the characteristics of commercial secrets. First, the magician will take adequate measures to keep oneself the secret to the outside world has always been tight-lipped. Second, the magician can be obtained by repeatedly performing the flow of economic interests, to achieve substantial earnings. Again, uniqueness, also known as novelty, refers to outstanding works magic for magicians tend to their own original results. Such as David Copperfield's through the Great Wall, the Statue of Liberty disappear, Liu Qian-Chun coins into the cup, and so the evening. This also confirms a very strong magic works only with original and unique nature of the audience curiosity will be satisfied and to make a magician in the peer to maintain competitiveness.

        Some people think that magic by the "Copyright Law" protection. "Copyright Law Implementation Regulations," provides that: Acrobatic art refers to acrobatics, magic, circus and other physical movements and skills through the performance of work. China is the acrobatic magic into the scope of works to be protected, but the circus itself is no secret at all, on the contrary is also to encourage other peers of them high-skill movements difficult to imitate, but the magic works reflect the vitality of features - making it and the mystery regarding General acrobatic works strictly separated. Unfortunately, this view is only stressed the need to increase their magic on the legal protection of intellectual property, but did not explicitly protect the specific ways.

        In fact, this view has to be reasonable, but the protection methods and intensity of existing problems, can not be a comprehensive, effective protection. Among them, the former point of view purely from the perspective of protection of trade secrets lack of comprehensiveness, the intensity at the same time there is no "Copyright Law" protection strong; latter view is that "Copyright Law" revision of new content, time, some NPC deputies urged to write on the acrobatics that is a traditional Chinese acrobatic art has won numerous awards in the international arena, melted into the strong performances of artistic elements, it should be subject to "Copyright Law" protection. In this way, as the acrobatic magic on the two branches into the "copyright law." But the deputies were probably did not really understand as "Copyright Law" in the end to protect the magic of what rights, resulting in "Copyright Law" is still in the reference not been translated into concrete operational level.

        From the perspective of magic profession itself, in fact, "magic" is an upper concept, we analyze various types of violations occur in practice is the magic part of the actual violations. First of all, magic performances of works for "Copyright Law" protection. A magician's performance is a logical flow through a series of actions culminated in an anti-logical results. Among these magician performing the steps used, processes, part of that "Copyright Law" to protect the object. In other words, can be a magician performing a specific process into a number of core and key actions, which is protected, the other magician shall not be copied. But that does not mean that other magicians can no longer perform the same magic of the. David can perform aerial flight, other people can perform this same magic, but you can not use the same movements with David and processes. Should be pointed out that the performances are bound to be used in a number of similar actions, as to what extent is copied from the same violations, scale by the judges to take specific discretion.

        Second, the magic props for trade secret protection. This is divided into two aspects to elaborate. On the one hand, if the magician invented a new props, and may have a significant impact, often a magician will take the most stringent security measures. In addition to his performances, will never leak outside and peer until it considers the new golden period before performing magic, and only the props external sales. On the other hand, when the magician licensed manufacturers make and sell their own props, can be regarded as a magician secrets licensed manufacturers to use, while the manufacturers to sell their clients, but also as once again permit the use of commercial secrets. Therefore, in cooperation with the magician's props manufacturers can sell to their customers and customers agree to the applicability "Contract Law" Article 348 the secret transfer of relevant technologies assignee shall assume the duty of confidentiality, so that customers can not be leaked to others or self-imitation of the . Manufacturers can be sold on the invoice, or in the contract of sale, you can also prop the description that the prohibition of disclosure and copying requirements.

        Again, a magician's show to protect the right to apply to neighboring rights. From China's "Copyright Law" provisions that, performers, actor or other performing literary and artistic works of people. "WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty" provides that: performers means actors, singers, musicians, dancers and performing, singing, speech, reading, playing, performance or otherwise performing literary or artistic works or works of folk art other personnel. Therefore, the magician of course, belongs to the performers areas, also protected by the neighboring rights. But the view was expressed that without a magician or a license to conduct live audio and video recordings of the acts have infringed upon is not a magician as "performers" rights, but their portrait rights or privacy, a magician can make use of the relevant provisions of General Principles of Civil protection. I disagree with this view, neighboring rights, refers to the works of communicators in the process of its dissemination of works made by the creative fruits of labor rights. Performers for their performances in addition to own property, but also have the right to protect their personal interests are not undermined. The idea is actually to neighboring rights protection reduced to general rules of civil protection, narrowing the scope of protection of rights. Therefore, application of a magician performing the interests of neighboring rights to be protected.

        In short, magic shows, legal protection is the more complex issue. Traditional method of industry self-regulation is mainly a magician and as a trade secret protection, the birth of modern copyright law provides protection for the Magic a new way. However, before the introduction of specific methods of protection, we can distinguish between different parts of the adoption of these to be separate legal means of protection.

 

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2010年3月18日