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南VS北——中国魔术的两大流派

发布日期:2010-01-25

  现代魔术在中国兴起之后,与中国的传统幻术相融合,经老一代艺术家的不断再创造,逐渐形成了南北两个流派。和京剧中的麒派、马泥相似,虽同一艺术表演,但各具特色。派不同之处,具体在表演形式和舞台形象等方面体现出来。

  北派的表演形式是由一人担任主演,另外一人担任助演,即固定由一个人使活,固定由一个人量活(也有设两名助手的)。当主演者表演时,助演必须密切配合主演的动作,担托,捧、扶、拉、推、送等工作,同时助演还要和主演者对口说白,二人一问一答,随声附和,并且要在自己面部做出悲,喜、惊、怒等表情,配以富有幽默感的动作,近似于相声演员的表演。有些重要的机密门子,往往掌握在助演手里,虽然名义上是助演,实际上在演出中占有重要的地位,所以有“三分使活七分量”之说。

  南派演员表演的时候,也由一人担任主演,由二人至若干人担任助演。一些巨型魔术团队则由四人至七,八人分别担任前后台工作。在表演进行之前,台上助演全部出场,排成八字形分站左右两旁,等主演者出来时,左右助演随即退入侧幕,注意着主演者的动作,根据表演需要,助演们及时而又恰当地从两侧配合出场,逆行接拉、托捧,推扶等工作。每个节目完毕又立即退下,待下个节日开始时,再出场工作。整个表演过程和哑剧一样,没有对口说白,只是一个又一十节日的连续演出。指南派老艺人介绍,早在三十年代,南派也有过对口说白和幽默动作等,后来由于节目内容日渐增多,把这些对白和动作挤掉了。
  再从节目内容等方面比较;北派偏重于手彩,以技巧细腻胜人,富于生活情趣,南派多以巨型为主,以精巧华丽著称,想象力强。北派把魔术的神秘寓于稳重之中,表演起来滴水不漏,耐人寻味,南派把魔术师的智,慧寄于快速之中,如同迅雷闪电,一气呵成。

总的来说,南北两个流派,各有其特点和长处,但也都有不足之处。

北派的优点是:
  1.主演与助演各一个,长期合作,比较固定。主演的一举一动,助演都能体会其意图,易于做到配合默契,收到“以假当真”的预期效果。
  2.主演与助演二人,边说边演,过程交代得比较清楚,也易于突出重点。
  3.对口说白,词句幽默,生动有趣,可以加强观众的欣赏兴趣。
  4.每场演出节目虽少,但能使观众把每个节目都看得比较清楚(北派一般每场演出三十分钟,共表演五至七个小节目,最后以一个中型或巨型魔术收场)。


但北派也相对地产生了以下的缺点:
  1.表演时往往对口说白占的时间太长,形成相声化,演出的魔术节目少了,不符合观众希望多欣赏魔术节目的要求。
  2.一般讲求表演技巧结合对白,而不太重视服装、道具和舞台布置等美化艺术。创新节目少,经常是一些老节目,连续演出多年不换。


南派魔术表演形式有以下几个优点:
  1.主演一个人—贯到底,不用固定的对白助手,专业性强,场面壮丽大方,适合于各种场地演出。
  2.不用对口说白,省了时间,使节目内容增多,分期更换,—般演三十分钟,能表演小型,中型,大型节目十五—二十个(南方称为闪电表演形式)。
  3。讲究服装、道具的美化,特别重视舞台画面艺术,创新较多。

南派魔术表演也同样有缺点;
  有时舞台上陈设道具太多,演出过程中助手上下过于频繁,影响观众的视线集中。同时,闪电式的表演动作,虽能让观众欣赏较多的节目,但前一个疑点尚未破除,后一个幻象又展现眼前,使观众看得眼花缭乱,看了后面的就忘了前面的,不能对每个节目留下深刻印象。
  南北两个流派的形成,与各地区的政治经济生活有关。上海是我国主要的通商口岸,与外国接触较为频繁,因而有利于模仿和革新。京津一带经过明清两朝惨淡经营了五,六百
  年,所以习惯于讲传统、求稳健。在北方对白幽默的表演形式早巳时兴,“道光初年,以国丧不演戏,大家酒馆,辄以戏法弄碗,杂以诙谐,为佑筋之具,自此风行一时。” (清·钱泳辑),可见中国戏法在北方的影响是较为深远的。
  对于南北两派表演形式的发展趋向,曾引起许多专业演员和业余爱好者的争论。一种意见认为,魔术艺术是属于智慧技巧的表演艺术,而不属于说唱艺术,因此它主要是依靠演员的表演技巧,配合道具,才能做到神奇变幻.吸引观众收到预期的效果。我国古典戏法, 《箩圈献彩》、 《仙人摘豆》、 《巧结连环》等节目,一演就响,关键在于演员的精湛技艺和精彩表演。另一种意见认为魔术已成为综合性艺术,要有红花有绿叶,恰当地运用语言艺术以加强效果也是必要的。各扦己见,看法不一,因此,对两种流派应做具体分析,扬长避短,择善面从,形成新的流振。
  此外,滑稽魔术应属于另一种流派。解放后滑稽魔术有了很大的发展,创作了一些优秀节日,但是要形成具有民族特色的滑稽魔术流派,还需要努力实践。
  总之,无论哪一种流派的形成都不是偶然的,既然能够长期流传,有群众基础,就有存在的道理,不该有门户之见,应根据艺术规律和观众的喜欢去发展。我们仅有两种流派不是多了,在为人民服务、为社会主义服务的前提下,需要发展更多的流派。

后记:十八世纪末叶,西洋魔术开始陆续传入中国。魔术是英语MAGIC的意译,从其语源来分析,希腊文是波斯古代僧侣的意思。MAGIC通常分为白魔术和黑魔术,黑魔术是借助魔鬼的妖术。可见魔术与宗教的关系是密切的。

  中文“魔”是梵文“魔罗”的略称, 《正字通·鬼部,引《译经论》: “古‘石’作‘磨’,梁武帝改从鬼。” (一说乃译人义作,不始自粱武)宗教认为魔能扰乱身心,破坏好事。

  把英语MAGIC译成魔术是十分恰当的, 魔术的本义就是惑人的妖术,做为艺术可以解释为神奇的艺术,和我国原有的幻术的含义是一致的。但魔术与幻术就定义来讲,也有微妙区别。 “魔”字是就其术对观众的作用而言;使人着魔,而“幻”宇则是就其术的特点而言:慷忽变幻。从文字方面推敲称“幻术”更为确切,所以至今有一些演员沿用“幻术”的名称,但约定俗成魔术的叫法已经更为昔遍。

 

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  In China, after the rise of modern magic, with the integration of traditional Chinese illusionist phase, after the older generation of artists continue to re-creation, and gradually formed the northern and southern schools. And the Peking Opera in the Qipai, Ma mud similar, although the same artistic performances, but with different features. Sent differences, specifically in the form of a performance and stage image, and so reflected.

  Form of the Northern School performance is a person as a star, and one person as a speech aid, that is fixed by one person to live, a fixed amount by a person living (also has set two assistants). When the star by the performance, to help speech must be closely coordinated starring action, Tam care, and holding, supporting, pull, push, send, etc., but also played and starred at the same time to help those who said their counterparts in white, and two a question-answer, simply repeating what others, and to in his face to make compassion, joy, shock, anger and other expressions, coupled with the rich sense of humor, action, similar to cross-talk performers performances. Some important secrets siemens, often played the hands of the hands of help, though nominally to help speech, in fact, the show occupies an important position, so there are "two-thirds to live for seven components do."

  When the South were performers, but also by a person as a star, from two to several people to take to help speech. Some mega-magic team from four to seven or eight were served before and after the work in Taiwan. Prior to the show, played on stage to help all the appearances, eight-shaped sub-station line up left and right sides, such as those starring out, then played back into the left side to help screen, pay attention to the star's movements, according to performance needs, to help speech are timely and from both sides with the proper appearance, retrograde then pulled to shore up both hands, pushing Fu and so on. Each program has finished another step down immediately, pending the start of the next festival, and then played the work. The whole process and pantomime performances, like their counterparts in that there is no white, just one after another 10 consecutive festival performances. Guide to send the old artists, as early as the thirties, also had their counterparts in the South were white and humor that moves and so on, later, as more and more content to the dialogue and action crowding out.
And from program content, etc. comparison; Northern School emphasis on hand-color, in order to win delicate skill people, rich delight of life, mainly the South to send more than a giant in order to elaborate ornate known for strong imagination. North to send the magic mystery resides among stable, performing up and impermeable to water, it is interesting, the South sent the magician's wisdom, Hui send in the fast into, as the Thunder lightning at one go.

  In general, the north and south two schools, each with its own characteristics and strengths, but also have shortcomings.

        North were the advantages are:
1. Starring with the help of a speech, long-term cooperation and relatively fixed. Starring every move can be played to help realize its intentions, easy-to-do act in harmony, you receive the "pseudo-seriousness" of the desired effect.
2. Starring played with the help of two, said as he played, the process explained more clearly, but also easy to focus.
3. Counterparts, said White, the words humorous, lively and interesting, the audience can enhance their appreciation.
4. Performances of each program, though small, it will enable viewers to each show is seen more clearly (North were generally performed 30 minutes per game, a total of five to seven shows a small program, the end, a medium-sized or large magic ending).


        But the North were also relatively generates the following disadvantages:
1. Performances are often white counterparts, said that accounted for too long to form a crosstalk-based, performed magic show fewer viewers want to see more do not meet the requirements to enjoy magic shows.
2. The general performance skills with emphasis on dialogue, and less emphasis on clothing, props and stage setting, etc. beautify the art. Innovative programs less often some of the old programs, continuous performances for many years without change.


  Magic shows in the form of the South sent the following advantages:
1. Starring a person - consistent in the end, without a fixed dialogue assistant, professional and strong, magnificent scenes, generous, suitable for a variety of venues.
2. Counterparts do not say white, saving time so that content increase, phased replacement - as played 30 minutes, can perform small, medium and large-scale events 15 - 20 (the South known as the lightning show form).
3. Pay attention to clothing, props beautification, special attention to the stage picture art, innovation and more.

  South to send magic show would also have shortcomings;
Sometimes, too much props on stage furnishings, performing up and down too frequently during the assistants, affecting the audience's attention focused. Meanwhile, the lightning performance movements, although the program allows viewers to appreciate more, but not get rid of the former one doubt, after a phantom again unfolding before our eyes, so that the audience were dazzled, looking back on the forgotten front, can not be right Each program impressed.
  The formation of two schools of north and south, with the political and economic life of the region. Shanghai is China's major trading ports, and more frequent contacts with foreign countries, which is conducive to imitation and innovation. The Beijing-Tianjin area through the Ming and Qing dynasties dismally five or six hundred
Years, so accustomed to talking about traditions, and seek sound. Humorous dialogue in the north, the performance is always already fashionable, "Daoguang early years, to national mourning is not acting, everyone pubs, Noir in order to get magic bowl, mixed with humor, in order to woo tendons of the set, since a passing fad." (Qing Qian Beach Series), showing that the impact of China's magic in the north is more far-reaching. For the development of North and South factions form of a performance trend, which has caused many professional actors and amateurs arguments. One view was that art is part of the wisdom of magic skills,             performing arts, not part of the spoken-word art, so it relies mainly on the actors performing skills, with the props, can achieve amazing changes. The audience have the desired effect. China's classic tricks, "basket ring Xian-Cai", "fairy Zhai beans", "Qiao knot chain" and other shows, one played on the ring, the key is to cast in their craft, and brilliant performance. Another view was that the Magic has become a comprehensive art, there must be red flowers have green leaves, appropriate use of language arts to enhance the effect is also necessary. The stick in their opinions, views differ, so schools should be done on two specific analysis, and avoid weaknesses, the right thing from the surface to form a new flow of vibration.
  In addition, the funny magic should belong to another genre. After the liberation Funny Magic has been greatly developed, creating some wonderful holidays, but it should be formed with the ethnic characteristics of the comic magic schools, but also need to work hard in practice.
  In short, no matter what kind of formation genre is not accidental, since the long-term spread, there is mass basis, there exists the truth, should not have sectarianism, should be based on the laws and the audience likes the arts to develop. We are only two kinds of genres is not more, in serving the people, serve socialism, under the premise of the need to develop more schools.


  Postscript: the eighteenth century leaves, Western Magic introduced into China one after another. MAGIC Magic is the English translation, from its source to analyze the language, Greek, Persian meaning of the ancient monks. MAGIC is usually divided into white magic and black magic, black magic is to draw the devil's sorcery. Shows the relationship between magic and religion are closely related.

  Chinese "Magic" is the Sanskrit "Mara," the abbreviation of "ghost-pass the Department of orthography, as quoted in" Transwhiz theory ":" ancient 'stone' to 'mill', Liangdi Emperor changed from a ghost. "(A translation that is meaning for people, not only self-Liang Wu) religion teaches that demons can disrupt the body and mind, destroy a good thing.

  MAGIC the English language is very appropriate to magic, magic of the original meaning is to perplex the people sorcery, as art can be interpreted as a magical art, and our original Illusion is the meaning of the same. But the Magic and Illusion on the definition of terms, there are subtle differences. The "magic" word on its role of surgery in terms of the audience; people possessed, and the "magic" Yu is a feature of its operation in terms of: generous suddenly changes. Scrutiny from text area called "Illusion" is more accurate, so far there are some actors use the term "Illusion," the name, but the convention has been more magic name for Xi times